Hong Kong’s new loyalty oath requires all lawmakers to love China — and the

Those questions could spell the end for any last vestiges of democracy in Hong Kong, as the government moved to introduce new requirements for public officials Tuesday, including that they swear loyalty oaths and embrace Beijing’s rule over the city.

Anyone who fails to take the oath — or is deemed to have done so in an insincere fashion — would be immediately disqualified from office and banned from running in elections for the next five years, Secretary for Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Erick Tsang said.

Tsang said that under the proposed new oath requirements, anyone standing for election at any level must embrace national sovereignty and security, and embrace the fact that Hong Kong is an inalienable part of the People’s Republic of China.

In practice, the concept of “patriotism” could be even broader, extending not only to the country, but to the ruling Communist Party.

“You cannot say that you are patriotic but you do not love the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party or you do not respect it — this does not make sense,” Tsang said, according to Reuters. “Patriotism is holistic love.”

The new guidelines come one day after a senior Beijing official overseeing Hong Kong affairs called for major electoral reforms to ensure only patriots can take office.

Similar loyalty tests have already been used to bar multiple pro-democracy candidates from standing for the city’s legislature, including Joshua Wong, now in jail, and to eject elected lawmakers from the body.
The new requirements come in the wake of a national security law imposed on the city last year by Beijing, which banned secession, subversion and collusion with foreign forces, and has been used to crack down heavily on the city’s opposition movement.

One target of the law has been Hong Kong politicians who used their positions to lobby foreign governments to push for greater democracy in the city, or impose sanctions against officials in Hong Kong and Beijing responsible for cracking down on protests. Last year, former pro-democracy legislator Ted Hui fled to the United Kingdom rather than face likely arrest for such efforts.

Social contract rewritten

Senior Chinese government officials routinely insist that to oppose the Communist Party is to oppose China itself, but codifying such a requirement would be a drastic rewriting of the social contract that has governed Hong Kong since it was handed over to Chinese rule in 1997.

For many, the roots of that understanding can be traced to a 1984 speech by Deng Xiaoping, in which the Chinese paramount leader said Hong Kong should be run by “patriots.”

“What is a patriot? A patriot is one who respects the Chinese nation, sincerely supports the motherland’s resumption of sovereignty over Hong Kong and wishes not to impair Hong Kong’s prosperity and stability,” he said. “Those who meet these requirements are patriots, whether they believe in capitalism or feudalism or even slavery. We don’t demand that they be in favor of China’s socialist system; we only ask them to love the motherland and Hong Kong.”

Many Hong Kong activists who pushed for democracy under British rule were staunch Chinese patriots, even nationalists, and…

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